One thing I have to ask is what we mean by fate. Two common interpretations might be that fate is:
1) When all events are determined by a causal prior chain of events, or
2) When the outcomes in your life are beyond your control.
I would say that believing in either type of fate does not require a belief in god. Physicalists, perhaps described as those who believe quite literally everything is matter in motion, typically do not believe in a god, instead seeing everything bound by physical laws and being a part of a deterministic chain of causes.
I'm not entirely sure where I stand on this. I feel like the concept of free will is very fuzzy and has some neuroscience counting against it, and I see some credibility to fate of the second kind. However, I'm not sure about fate of the first kind. Some people feel like quantum mechanics provides a way out of hard determinism but I honestly haven't paid each side their due attention.