i would be worried about the bone... is there a chance he broke off a splinter? bones can be very dangerous for dogs. what kind of bone was it? beef? cooked or raw or smoked? what kind of dog do you have - large breed or small breed? are the jaws big enough to break the bone into bits?
if he/she has a jagged or sharp piece of bone in his stomach that would explain the puking. the body is trying to rid itself of this thing before it gets into the intestines.
is there any blood in the vomit?